A Constrained Space Exploration Technology Program: A Review by Committee to Review NASA 's Exploration Technology

By Committee to Review NASA 's Exploration Technology Development Program, National Research Council

In January 2004, President George W. Bush introduced the imaginative and prescient for house Exploration (VSE), which advised NASA to 'Extend human presence around the sunlight method, beginning with a human go back to the Moon via the 12 months 2020, in education for human exploration of Mars and different destinations,' between different targets. As stated within the VSE, major know-how improvement might be essential to accomplish the targets it articulates.NASA's Exploration know-how improvement application (ETDP) is designed to aid, boost, and eventually give you the worthwhile applied sciences to fulfill the objectives of the VSE. This e-book, a assessment of the ETDP, is generally supportive of the purpose and pursuits of the VSE, and reveals the ETDP is making growth in the direction of the said pursuits of know-how improvement. in spite of the fact that, the ETDP is working inside of major constraints which restrict its skill to effectively accomplish these pursuits - the nonetheless dynamic nature of the Constellation software requisites, the limitations imposed through a restricted finances, the competitive time scale of early expertise deliverables, and the will to completely hire the NASA staff.

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In some cases, the lack of a fully integrated system test before the flight may lead to undesirable risks. It was mentioned that the Constellation Program Office is evaluating the risks associated with bypassing some of these tests or the eventuality of not achieving the desired TRL 6 by the PDR. This position is in direct conflict with the “Enabling Technologies” designation assigned to the CFM project by the Exploration Program Office. ) However, the committee did not see the absence of achieving a TRL of 6 as a major deficiency if an analysis of the program-level risks, underway at the time of writing, concludes that a TRL of 6 is not required.

Furthermore, at 13 km/s the stagnation-point heat load is approximately 70 percent ­radiative, whereas for lunar-return entries it is less than 25 percent. Therefore, an entirely different heat shield design may be required for reentry from Mars; hence the present technology does not fully support the entire VSE. 03 LUNAR DUST MITIGATION Objective Dust was an issue for the Apollo astronauts, and it continues to be an issue for the Mars Exploration Rovers (MERs). , for its obscuring of landing sites, causing equipment to overheat, and covering solar arrays).

NASA’s fuel cell development efforts are less dependent on non-NASA research, as the objectives of the commercial fuel cell research are quite different, with its focus on reducing cost and its operation on air rather than oxygen. The regenerative fuel cell being developed by NASA could readily find application as an energy storage medium for terrestrial markets in intermittent renewable energy systems such as wind and solar. Alignment with the Vision for Space Exploration: Green Flag The research on battery and fuel cell technologies is well aligned with the VSE, and these technologies are critical to the Constellation requirements.

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