By H. P. H. Jansen (auth.), I. Schöffer (eds.)
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Whereas there's now renewed curiosity within the historical past of Athens below the Roman empire, the Augustan and Julio-Claudian sessions stay fairly ignored by way of prolonged examine. therefore the one complete old works at the interval and its epigraphy stay these of Paul Graindor, that have been released earlier than the invention of the Athenian Agora and its epigraphical wealth.
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Geesttafels or armendissen. But these poor people are taxed. They can be divided into two sub-groups, whose quota amounts to 10 or 20 per cent of the highest rate of 60 patars (3 Carolus florins), namely 6 or 12 patars. 23 At any rate, the needy of no fixed abode (itinerant beggars) - who, indeed, were fairly hard to track down - were not included for the purpose of the censuses (Hainaut, 1540; Artois, 1475), and certainly not for the parish quota. 24 Between them and the disarmen (those regularly in receipt of full poor relief from the armendissen), lay the official fiscal poverty line.
During the fifteenth century, the HI. Geesttafel in the parish of St. Nicholas, in Ghent, distributed varying sums of money in individual cases of sickness, childbirth in difficult circumstances, and disability. The HI. Geesttafel of Our Lady in Mechlin annually devoted substantial sums to caring for the sick in their own homes (if necessary providing an attendant) and to placing the mentally handicapped in the care of monks or nuns. The weekly allowance of 3-4 stuivers slightly exceeded the daily wage of a bricklayer's assistant and may thus be regarded as the minimum on which one person could survive (Archief van de Commissie voor Openbare Onderstand, Mechlin, 8411-8419, anno 1521-45).
Par. 2 years 100,000-200,000 lb. par. 10 years 100,000-200,000 lb. par. 5 years 200,000-300,000 lb. par. 5 years 12 years 200,000-300,000 lb. par. more than 300,000 lb. par. 2 years 8 years 300,000-400,000 lb. par. P. Blockmans, De volksvertegenwoordiging in Vlaanderen tijdens de overgang van middeleeuwen naar nieuwe tijden. Verhandeling Kon. Academie van Belgie, Klasse der Letteren (now being printed); N. Maddens, 'De beden in het graafschap Vlaanderen tijdens de regering van Keizer Karel V (1515-1550), (dissertation, University of Louvain, in print).