Affirmative Action and the University: Race, Ethnicity, and by Kul B. Rai

By Kul B. Rai

Affirmative motion and the collage is the single full-length research to ascertain the influence of affirmative motion on all greater schooling hiring practices. Drawing on data supplied by way of the equivalent Employment chance fee and the U.S. division of Education’s nationwide middle for schooling information, the authors summarize, song, and review adjustments within the gender and ethnic make-up of educational and nonacademic staff at inner most and public faculties and universities from the overdue Seventies in the course of the mid-1990s. Separate chapters determine adjustments in employment possibilities for white girls, blacks, Asians, Hispanics, and local americans. The authors examine the level to which a two-tier employment procedure exists. In this sort of approach minorities and ladies usually tend to make their maximum earnings in non-elite positions instead of in college and administrative positions. The authors additionally learn changes in hiring practices among private and non-private schools and universities.

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In an argument before the Supreme Court in Anderson v. Martin, Jack Greenberg, then director counsel of the naacp Legal Defense Fund, said: “The state has a duty under the Fifteenth Amendment and the Fourteenth Amendment to be color blind and not to act so as to encourage racial discrimination . . ”29 Such statements later provided fuel for the arguments opposing affirmative action, since a form of quota system ignoring color blindness did indeed develop in the 1970s and 1980s.      Although the Civil Rights Act of 1964 provided the statutory basis of affirmative action, federal departments and agencies developed the presidential executive orders and bureaucratic rules that formulated this program, including compliance and enforcement procedures.

Representative Charles Canady of Florida introduced the same bill in the House. This bill, according to a newspaper account, “would end the use of ‘racial and gender preferences’ in federal contracting, hiring and other federally conducted activities. It would not ban the government from engaging in ‘outreach’ and recruitment, the new gop buzzwords for affirmative action. . ”65 Although the debate on affirmative action will continue, and some major revisions to it are probable, the program is not likely to be abandoned altogether.

21 Regardless of the intentions of President Kennedy and his writers, the phrase affirmative action stuck and came to mean much more than what classical liberalism implied for nondiscrimination in employment. O. ”22 President Kennedy’s executive order did not apply to construction contracts. That omission was corrected by another of his executive orders, signed 6 History of Affirmative Action in 1963. Far more important, the president also addressed the issue of gender equality in employment by appointing in 1961 a President’s Commission on the Status of Women.

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