An Examination of the Mystic Tendencies in Islām in the by Zuhurud-Din M. M. Ahmad

By Zuhurud-Din M. M. Ahmad

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It cannot be God who does this thing, the most troubled Sufis argue inwardly and among themselves; not the Essence of Hospitality, the Essence of all Desire. But it cannot be other than God also, for it is God's Law that has decreed the The Resurfacing of His Life and its Repeated impact 41 punishment for heresy, for likening oneself to God. A vivid recollection of Hallaj' s martyrdom brings spiritual and human contradiction. For most, as we mentioned before, denial is the only recourse. God couldn't permit the execution in His Law's name of an innocent; therefore, this Hallaj was given the punishment to preserve the truth of God's teaching and Law.

The lived text of his life and death reveals the teachings he absorbed from the Qur'an, first and foremost, and secondarily from other influences, Christian, Hellenistic, neo-Gnostic, current in his time. , Eng. tr. 518 ff: "The Hallajian Testament of Faith"). But beyond this indeed serious question remains the dogmatic intensity of his practiced faith and the sweetness of his intimacy of love for God and for humanity expressed in his lyric poetry. Apart from the legality or political exigency of his appalling execution and the questions that persist regarding either, one receives ripples of fright at the thought that faith could lead one to such an end in any civilized society.

808/ 44 Hallaj 1406): the theme of the sedentary versus the nomadic with its roots in the ancient Near Eastern depictions of declining citadel civilizations and emerging tribal peoples from the Steppe; and the theme of 'asabiyya or group-tribal solidarity as the binding social and even religious force in the early Arab configurations. It is not too fanciful to suggest that the fourth/tenth century recurrences or variations on these themes affecting Hallaj were the dichotomies and apparent contradictions between institutional and individual religious vocations, between literal adherence to the text of Revealed Law and the emergence of serious testimonies of direct experience, that had become in tensified since the aforemen tioned Hasan of Basra and Rabi'a al-'Adawiya with the development of mystical schools and systematic manuals demonstrating and guiding "states and stages" of experience and arguing the boundaries of Sacred Law vis-a-vis the temptations and impulses of such experience.

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